Diurnal variations of interleukin-6 plasma levels are confounded by blood drawing procedures

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2002 Nov;27(8):921-31. doi: 10.1016/s0306-4530(02)00006-9.


Recent findings suggest that inflammatory cytokines are involved in sleep regulation. In part, this idea is based on studies showing that systemic levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are affected by sleep and sleep deprivation. However, intravenous (IV) catheters used for repetitive blood sampling were reported to increase local IL-6 production, which might confound sleep-dependent or circadian changes in the plasma concentrations of this cytokine. To further examine the effects of blood drawing procedures on IL-6 plasma levels, 12 healthy young male subjects participated in a 24-h cross-over study protocol involving sleep and sleep deprivation. Blood was collected half-hourly through an IV line and one additional sample was taken by a simple needle stick from the contralateral arm in parallel to the last sample from the catheter. Difficulties in blood sampling, the plasma levels of IL-6, cortisol and subjective sleepiness were quantified. In samples from the IV line there was a linear increase in IL-6 levels in both conditions, whereas the amount of IL-6 detected in the needle stick sample at the end did not differ from baseline. IL-6 levels were significantly higher in samples rated as difficult and those difficulties were more frequent during sleep compared to nocturnal wakefulness. IL-6 levels did not correlate to variations in sleepiness or cortisol levels. We conclude that variations in IL-6 plasma levels measured in samples from an IV catheter are caused, at least in part, by changes in local cytokine production rather than by physiological changes in circulating IL-6 levels.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Specimen Collection / methods*
  • Catheterization
  • Circadian Rhythm*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / blood
  • Interleukin-6 / blood*
  • Male
  • Sleep / physiology
  • Sleep Deprivation / blood


  • Interleukin-6
  • Hydrocortisone