Background: Widespread mammography has resulted in the increased detection of breast cancer <1.5 cm. It may be possible to treat these small tumors with in-situ laser ablation. Prior to ablation tumor size is determined by ultrasound and mammogram. Histologic diagnosis and determination of prognostic factors are obtained from image-guided needle core samples. Invasive and in-situ tumors may be percutaneously ablated by a stereotactically guided laser needle and subsequently evaluated by imaging methods and needle biopsy.
Methods: Fifty-four patients (50 invasive, 4 in-situ); 51 mass, 3 microcalcification; mean diameter 12 (5 to 23) mm were treated by a stereotactically guided 805 nm laser beam via a fiber in a 16G needle delivered to the cancer. One to 8 weeks later the coagulated lesions were surgically removed for pathologic evaluation. In 2 additional patients, the laser-treated tumors were not removed but were monitored by mammography, ultrasonography, and needle core biopsy.
Results: None of the patients sustained any adverse effect. The average treatment time was 30 minutes. Pathology analysis revealed a 2.5 to 3.5 hemorrhagic ring surrounding the necrotic tumor. Under steady conditions, in two groups of 14 patients, 93% and 100% of the tumors showed complete destruction, with no residual cancer report. In the 2 unresected cases kept under surveillance for 6 to 24 months, the laser-treated tumors first showed shrinkage, followed by a 2 to 3 cm oil cyst. Fibrosis was demonstrated on needle core biopsies.
Conclusions: Laser energy delivered through a stereotactically guided needle appears to ablate mammographically detected breast cancer. A multicenter clinical trail is planned.