The Mouse Models of Cancer Consortium of the NCI sponsored a meeting of neuropathologists and veterinary pathologists in New York City in November of 2000. A rapidly growing number of genetically engineered mice (GEM) predisposed to tumors of the nervous system have led to a concomitant need for neuropathological evaluation and validation of these models. A panel of 13 pathologists reviewed material representing most of the available published and unpublished GEM models of medulloblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, mixed glioma, and tumors of the peripheral nerve. The GEM tumors were found to have many similarities and some distinct differences with respect to human disease. After review of the biology and pathology for all models presented, participants were split into groups reflective of clinical expertise in human pathology, tumor biology, neuroimaging, or treatment/intervention. Recommendations were made detailing an extensive and complete neuropathological characterization of animals. Importance was placed on including information on strains, tumor clonality, and examination for genetic mutation or altered gene expression characteristics of the corresponding human malignancy. Specific proposals were made to incorporate GEM models in emerging neuroradiological modalities. Recommendations were also made for preclinical validation of these models in cancer therapeutics, and for incorporation of surrogate markers of tumor burden to facilitate preclinical evaluation of new therapies.