PYRIN-containing Apaf-1-like proteins (PYPAFs) are a recently identified family of proteins thought to function in apoptotic and inflammatory signaling pathways. PYPAF1 and PYPAF7 proteins have been found to assemble with the PYRIN-CARD protein ASC and coordinate the activation of NF-kappaB and pro-caspase-1. To determine if other PYPAF family members function in pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, we screened five other PYPAF proteins (PYPAF2, PYPAF3, PYPAF4, PYPAF5 and PYPAF6) for their ability to activate NF-kappaB and pro-caspase-1. Co-expression of PYPAF5 with ASC results in a synergistic activation of NF-kappaB and the recruitment of PYPAF5 to punctate structures in the cytoplasm. The expression of PYPAF5 is highly restricted to granulocytes and T-cells, indicating a role for this protein in inflammatory signaling. In contrast, PYPAF2, PYPAF3, PYPAF4 and PYPAF6 failed to colocalize with ASC and activate NF-kappaB. PYPAF5 also synergistically activated caspase-1-dependent cytokine processing when co-expressed with ASC. These findings suggest that PYPAF5 functions in immune cells to coordinate the transduction of pro-inflammatory signals to the activation of NF-kappaB and pro-caspase-1.