Amiel-Tison neurologic assessment at term has recently been updated for clinical application. Experience in this field, in addition to a better understanding of pathophysiologic characteristics of the immature brain, has taught us that an increased precision in assessing central nervous system function in the neonate is compatible with a simplification of the clinical instrument. The complete procedure takes approximately 5 minutes. A simple 0, 1, and 2 scoring system is proposed. Because this coding system is not quantitative, any computation of quotient or total score is inappropriate. Rather, a final synthesis based on clusters of signs and symptoms is advisable. A distinct final synthesis is proposed for term newborn infants in the first week of life and for preterm neonates at approximately 40 weeks of age corrected. Clinical profiles emerging from repeated assessments in the term newborn and early clinical findings indicating a brain damage of prenatal origin are described. Interrater reliability has been proved to be more than satisfactory. Such an assessment is useful for any newborn infant in maternity wards or for any preterm infant approximately 40 weeks of age, with or without abnormal imaging findings.