Among European countries, Greece has the lowest incidence of and mortality from endometrial cancer. We have undertaken a case-control study aiming to identify possible reasons for this. Cases were 84 women with histologically confirmed incident endometrial cancer, whereas controls were another 84 women with intact uterus admitted for small gynaecological operations, mainly pelvic prolapse. Women provided information concerning socio-economic, reproductive and medical variables. Most findings were in line with those previously reported from other investigations; no association was as striking as to suggest an effect modification that could underlay the favourable position of Greece with respect to endometrial cancer. Novel findings were the statistically significant inverse associations of endometrial cancer with coffee drinking and suggestive inverse associations with height-induced abortions. Low average height of Greek women, high frequency of induced abortions and low frequency of replacement oestrogens use may contribute to the lower endometrial cancer incidence in Greece.