Hypertonic saline solution (HSS) has been investigated in the treatment of intracranial hypertension (ICH) in a limited number of studies, usually after failure of conventional treatment. HSS, used in concentrations that vary from 3% to 23.4%, seems to be effective in reducing refractory ICH and to be devoid of adverse effects. We treated a patient with refractory ICH with a small-volume infusion of 18% HSS, and performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after HSS infusion. MRI showed a marked reduction in cerebral water content 1 h after the infusion. To our knowledge, this is the first MRI study in a patient with brain injury to evaluate the effect of HSS on brain water content. Further studies are necessary to test HSS efficacy and to identify, through MRI or computed tomography (CT) scan imaging, a subgroup of patients with brain injury who would be best treated with HSS.