Purpose: Although open pyeloplasty remains the gold standard for treating ureteropelvic junction obstruction, endourology and laparoscopy have revolutionized the management of upper tract stenosis. We present our diagnostic and minimally invasive therapeutic algorithm for the treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction.
Materials and methods: A total of 13 females and 9 males with a mean age of 34.2 years suffering from ureteropelvic junction obstruction were treated with percutaneous endopyelotomy or laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty and followed for 47 to 61 months (mean 53.8) and 47 to 62 months (mean 52.5), respectively. Diagnosis was based on findings of ultrasound, excretory urography, furosemide washout renogram and retrograde ureteropyelography. In cases of ureteral kinking color duplex sonography and spiral computerized tomography were performed. In 14 patients with intrinsic stenosis percutaneous endopyelotomy was performed, while the remaining 8 patients (5 with crossing vessels, 2 with an extremely distended pelvis and 1 with a 2.5 cm. stricture) were treated with a laparoscopic dismembered Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty.
Results: In the endopyelotomy group (success rate 92.8%), mean operation time was 1.2 hours, estimated blood loss was 152 ml., unit doses of analgesics were 5.4 tablets, days of hospitalization were 4.2 and time to return to normal activities was 15.7 days. In the laparoscopic group (success rate of 100%) the aforementioned variables were 3.5 hours (p <0.05), 150 ml., 6.3 tablets, 5 and 17.8 days, respectively. Long-term followup excretory urography and/or diuretic renal scan demonstrated improvement in all patients.
Conclusions: Percutaneous endopyelotomy should be the treatment of choice for intrinsic ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty, although technically challenging, provides excellent results for extrinsic or complicated ureteropelvic junction stenosis.