CCL9/MIP-1gamma and its receptor CCR1 are the major chemokine ligand/receptor species expressed by osteoclasts

J Cell Biochem. 2002;87(4):386-93. doi: 10.1002/jcb.10319.


Although much has been learned recently of the mechanisms by which the differentiation of osteoclasts is induced, less is known of the factors that regulate their migration and localization, and their interactions with other bone cells. In related cell types, chemokines play a major role in these processes. We therefore systematically tested the expression of RNA for chemokines and their receptors by osteoclasts. Because bone is the natural substrate for osteoclasts and may influence osteoclast behavior, we also tested expression on bone slices. Quantitative RT-PCR using real-time analysis with SYBR Green was therefore performed on RNA isolated from bone marrow cells after incubation with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) with/without receptor-activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL), on plastic or bone. We found that RANKL induced expression of CCL9/MIP-1gamma to levels comparable to that of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a major specialized product of osteoclasts. CCL22/MDC, CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1, and CCL25/TECK were also induced. The dominant chemokine receptor expressed by osteoclasts was CCR1, followed by CCR3 and CX3CR1. Several receptors expressed on macrophages and associated with inflammatory responses, including CCR2 and CCR5, were down-regulated by RANKL. CCL9, which acts through CCR1, stimulated cytoplasmic motility and polarization in osteoclasts, identical to that previously observed in response to CCL3/MIP-1alpha, which also acts through CCR1 and is chemotactic for osteoclasts. These results identify CCL9 and its receptor CCR1 as the major chemokine and receptor species expressed by osteoclasts, and suggest a crucial role for CCL9 in the regulation of bone resorption.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Bone Marrow Cells / cytology
  • Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism
  • Bone Resorption
  • Bone and Bones / cytology
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Cattle
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Ligands
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins / physiology*
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Male
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Osteoblasts / metabolism*
  • Osteoclasts / metabolism
  • RANK Ligand
  • RNA / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
  • Receptors, CCR1
  • Receptors, Chemokine / metabolism
  • Receptors, Chemokine / physiology*
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Time Factors


  • CCR1 protein, human
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Ccr1 protein, mouse
  • Ccr1 protein, rat
  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Ligands
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • RANK Ligand
  • Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
  • Receptors, CCR1
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • TNFRSF11A protein, human
  • TNFSF11 protein, human
  • Tnfrsf11a protein, mouse
  • Tnfsf11 protein, mouse
  • RNA