Ganoderma lucidum extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell

Int J Cancer. 2002 Nov 20;102(3):250-3. doi: 10.1002/ijc.10707.


Although the pharmacology and clinical application of water extracts of Ganoderma lucidum have been extensively documented, little is known regarding its alcohol extract. In the present study, the anti-tumor effect of an alcohol extract of Ganoderma lucidum was investigated using MCF-7 cells. We found that the alcohol extract of Ganoderma lucidum inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which might be mediated through up-regulation of p21/Waf1 and down-regulation of cyclin D1. Furthermore, this compound can directly induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, which might be mediated through up-regulation of a pro-apoptotic Bax protein and not by the immune system. Our findings suggest that there are multiple mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effects of Ganoderma lucidum.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alcohols / pharmacology
  • Apoptosis*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Caspase 7
  • Caspases / metabolism
  • Cell Cycle Proteins*
  • Cell Division
  • Cyclin D1 / metabolism
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Down-Regulation
  • E2F Transcription Factors
  • Genes, p53
  • Humans
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins*
  • Reishi / metabolism*
  • Time Factors
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Up-Regulation


  • Alcohols
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • E2F Transcription Factors
  • Plant Extracts
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cyclin D1
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
  • CDK4 protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
  • CASP7 protein, human
  • Caspase 7
  • Caspases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)