Mood disorders have traditionally been conceptualized as neurochemical disorders, but there is now evidence from a variety of sources demonstrating regional reductions in central nervous system (CNS) volume, as well as reductions in the numbers and/or sizes of glia and neurons in discrete brain areas. Although the precise cellular mechanisms underlying these morphometric changes remain to be fully elucidated, the data suggests that mood disorders are associated with impairments of structural plasticity and cellular resilience. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have shown that signaling pathways involved in regulating cell survival and cell death are long-term targets for the actions of antidepressants and mood stabilizers. Antidepressants, lithium, and valproate indirectly regulate a number of factors involved in cell survival pathways, including CREB, BDNF, Bcl-2, and MAP kinases, and may thus bring about some of their delayed long term beneficial effects via underappreciated neurotrophic effects. The future development of treatments that more directly target molecules involved in critical CNS cell survival and cell death pathways thus hold promise as novel, improved long-term treatments for mood disorders.