Human performance: a role for the ACE genotype?

Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2002 Oct;30(4):184-90. doi: 10.1097/00003677-200210000-00008.


The I allele of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with lower ACE activity and endurance performance; an excess occurs in elite distance runners, rowers, and mountaineers, perhaps secondary to enhanced muscle efficiency. Conversely, the D allele is associated with training-related strength gain and elite power-oriented performance secondary to increased ACE and angiotensin II, a growth factor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Bradykinin / genetics
  • Bradykinin / metabolism
  • Genetic Markers
  • Genetics, Population
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / genetics*
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / metabolism
  • Physical Endurance / genetics*
  • Physical Endurance / physiology
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Task Performance and Analysis*


  • Genetic Markers
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
  • Bradykinin