Photogrammetric assessment of the soft tissue profile in unilateral cleft lip and palate

Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2002 Nov;39(6):597-603. doi: 10.1597/1545-1569_2002_039_0597_paotst_2.0.co_2.


Objective: To describe the soft tissue profile of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate from profile photographs and assess the reliability of this method.

Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.

Setting: A national study in the United Kingdom.

Subjects: Caucasian children born in the United Kingdom between April 1, 1982, and March 31, 1984, and aged between 12 and 14 years at data collection. A cleft side and noncleft side profile photograph was available for each of 175 children.

Method: Seven angular measurements were made using Dentofacial Planner Plus software, and the profile appearance was rated by an expert panel.

Results: Reliability for repeated measurement of the same photograph was acceptable for all but li-sm(s)-pg(s) (labiomental fold). Similar levels of reliability were found when comparing measurements from the cleft side and non-cleft side photograph. Logistic regression showed that the variables nst-sn-ls (nasolabial angle), ss(s)-n(s)-pg(s) (maxillary prominence), and g(s)-prn-pg(s) (facial convexity) were associated with the profile score.

Conclusions: Soft tissue profile analysis from photographs is reliable and robust under a range of conditions. Soft tissue profile measurements are associated with panel ratings of profile.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Chin / pathology
  • Cleft Lip / pathology*
  • Cleft Palate / pathology*
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Face*
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Lip / pathology
  • Logistic Models
  • Maxilla / pathology
  • Normal Distribution
  • Nose / pathology
  • Photogrammetry*
  • Photography
  • Prospective Studies
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Software
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Statistics, Nonparametric