Endoreduplication is a common process in eukaryotes that involves DNA amplification without corresponding cell divisions. Cell size in various organisms has been linked to endoreduplication, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We have used a genetic strategy to identify molecules involved in endocycles in Arabidopsis. We isolated two extreme dwarf mutants, hypocotyl6 (hyp6) and root hairless2 (rhl2) , and cells of these mutants successfully complete only the first two rounds of endoreduplication and stall at 8C. In both mutants, large cell types, such as trichomes and some epidermal cells, that normally endoreduplicate their DNA are much reduced in size. We show that HYP6 encodes AtTOP6B, a plant homolog of the archaeal DNA topoisomerase VI subunit B, and that RHL2 encodes AtSPO11-3, one of the three Arabidopsis subunit A homologs. We propose that this topoisomerase VI complex is essential for the decatenation of replicated chromosomes during endocycles and that successive rounds of endoreduplication are required for the full growth of specific cell types.