Our objective is to understand the low metabolic utilization of dietary carbohydrates in fish. We compared the regulation of gluconeogenic enzymes at a molecular level in two fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), known to be relatively tolerant to dietary carbohydrates. After cloning of partial cDNA sequences for three key gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), fructose biphosphatase (FBPase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the two species, we analyzed gene expressions of these enzymes 6 and 24 h after feeding with (20%) or without carbohydrates. Our data show that there is at least one gluconeogenic enzyme strongly regulated (decreased expression after feeding) in the two fish species, i.e. the PEPCK for common carp and G6Pase/FBPase for gilthead seabream. In these fish species, the regulation seems to be similar to the mammals at least at the molecular level.