Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) and MIP-1beta are highly related members of the CC chemokine subfamily. Despite their structural similarities, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta show diverging signaling capacities. Depending on the MIP-1 subtype and its NH(2)-terminal processing, one or more of the CC chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5 are recognized. Since both human MIP-1alpha subtypes (LD78alpha and LD78beta) and MIP-1beta signal through CCR5, the major co-receptor for M-tropic HIV-1 strains, these chemokines are capable of inhibiting HIV-1 infection in susceptible cells. In this review, different aspects of human and mouse MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta are discussed, including their protein and gene structures, their regulated production, their receptor usage and biological activities and their role in several pathologies including HIV-1 infection.
Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.