Macrophage inflammatory protein-1

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2002 Dec;13(6):455-81. doi: 10.1016/s1359-6101(02)00045-x.


Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) and MIP-1beta are highly related members of the CC chemokine subfamily. Despite their structural similarities, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta show diverging signaling capacities. Depending on the MIP-1 subtype and its NH(2)-terminal processing, one or more of the CC chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5 are recognized. Since both human MIP-1alpha subtypes (LD78alpha and LD78beta) and MIP-1beta signal through CCR5, the major co-receptor for M-tropic HIV-1 strains, these chemokines are capable of inhibiting HIV-1 infection in susceptible cells. In this review, different aspects of human and mouse MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta are discussed, including their protein and gene structures, their regulated production, their receptor usage and biological activities and their role in several pathologies including HIV-1 infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Division
  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • HIV-1 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins / genetics*
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins / metabolism*
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins / physiology*
  • Mice
  • Models, Biological
  • Models, Molecular
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Receptors, CCR1
  • Receptors, CCR3
  • Receptors, CCR5 / genetics
  • Receptors, CCR5 / metabolism
  • Receptors, Chemokine / metabolism


  • CCR1 protein, human
  • CCR3 protein, human
  • Ccr1 protein, mouse
  • Ccr3 protein, mouse
  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins
  • Receptors, CCR1
  • Receptors, CCR3
  • Receptors, CCR5
  • Receptors, Chemokine