Carcinogenic aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl, which is contained in tobacco smoke, are one of the causal factors of urothelial epithelial cancers. 4-Aminobiphenyl has been shown to be bioactivated through N-hydroxylation by hepatic cytochrome (CYP) 1A2 and subsequently through O-sulfation and O-acetylation by phenol sulfating sulfotransferase, ST1A3 (SULT1A1), and arylamine N-acetyltransferase, NAT2, respectively. In a case-control study for urothelial epithelial cancers, low activity alleles of NAT2 are overall high-risk alleles (OR 2.11; 95% CI 1.08-4.26). Wild-type ST1A3*1 ((213)Arg) alleles were slightly overrepresented in nonsmoking urothelial cancer patients (82.6% vs. 69.7%) and in smoking cancer patients (76.7% and 74.3%) compared to a variant ST1A3*2 ((213)His) allele. In combination of ST1A3 and NAT2 genotypes for analyses of urothelial cancer risk, the highest OR of 2.45 (95% CI 1.04-5.98) was obtained with ST1A3*1 and NAT2 slow genotype among the 4 combinations. Recombinant ST1A3*1 enzyme showed a tendency of catalyzing higher in vitro 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate-dependent DNA adduct formation than ST1A3*2 (2.84 +/- 0.49 and 2.22 +/- 0.11 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). Combined analyses of different alleles of carcinogenic aromatic amine-activating phase II enzymes were applied to urothelial cancer risk for the first time and showed the highest risk combination of ST1A3 and NAT2 alleles.
Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.