Most chromosomal mutations that cause antibiotic resistance impose fitness costs on the bacteria. This biological cost can often be reduced by compensatory mutations. In Salmonella typhimurium, the nucleotide substitution AAA42 --> AAC in the rpsL gene confers resistance to streptomycin. The resulting amino acid substitution (K42N) in ribosomal protein S12 causes an increased rate of ribosomal proofreading and, as a result, the rate of protein synthesis, bacterial growth and virulence are decreased. Eighty-one independent lineages of the low-fitness, K42N mutant were evolved in the absence of antibiotic to ameliorate the costs. From the rate of fixation of compensated mutants and their fitness, the rate of compensatory mutations was estimated to be > or = 10-7 per cell per generation. The size of the population bottleneck during evolution affected fitness of the adapted mutants: a larger bottleneck resulted in higher average fitness. Only four of the evolved lineages contained streptomycin-sensitive revertants. The remaining 77 lineages contained mutants that were still fully streptomycin resistant, had retained the original resistance mutation and also acquired compensatory mutations. Most of the compensatory mutations, resulting in at least 35 different amino acid substitutions, were novel single-nucleotide substitutions in the rpsD, rpsE, rpsL or rplS genes encoding the ribosomal proteins S4, S5, S12 and L19 respectively. Our results show that the deleterious effects of a resistance mutation can be compensated by an unexpected variety of mutations.