Community-oriented primary care (COPC) developed and was tested over nearly 3 decades in the Hadassah Community Health Center in Jerusalem, Israel. Integration of public health responsibility with individual-based clinical management of patients formed the cornerstone of the COPC approach. A family medicine practice and a mother and child preventive service provided the frameworks for this development. The health needs of the community were assessed, priorities determined, and intervention programs developed and implemented on the basis of detailed analysis of the factors responsible for defined health states. Ongoing health surveillance facilitated evaluation, and the effectiveness of interventions in different population groups was illustrated. The center's international COPC involvement has had effects on primary health care policy worldwide.