Activating mutations of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) FLT3 can be found in approximately 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), thereby representing the most frequent single genetic alteration in AML. These mutations occur in the juxtamembrane (FLT3 length mutations; FLT3-LMs) and the second tyrosine kinase domain of FLT3-TKD and confer interleukin 3 (IL-3)-independent growth to Ba/F3 cells. In the mouse bone marrow transplantation model, FLT3-LMs induce a myeloproliferative syndrome stressing their transforming activity in vivo. In this study, we analyzed the pro-proliferative and antiapoptotic potential of FLT3 in FLT3-LM/TKD-mutation-transformed Ba/F3 cells and AML-derived cell lines. The PTK inhibitor SU5614 has inhibitory activity for FLT3 and selectively induces growth arrest, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in Ba/F3 and AML cell lines expressing a constitutively activated FLT3. In addition, the compound reverts the antiapoptotic and pro-proliferative activity of FLT3 ligand (FL) in FL-dependent cells. No cytotoxic activity of SU5614 was found in leukemic cell lines that express a nonactivated FLT3 or no FLT3 protein. At the biochemical level, SU5614 down-regulated the activity of the hyperphosphorylated FLT3 receptor and its downstream targets, signal transducer and activator of (STAT) 3, STAT5, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the STAT5 target genes BCL-X(L) and p21. Our results show that SU5614 is a PTK inhibitor of FLT3 and has antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity in AML-derived cell lines that endogenously express an activated FLT3 receptor. The selective and potent cytotoxicity of FLT3 PTK inhibitors support a clinical strategy of targeting FLT3 as a new molecular treatment option for patients with FLT3-LM/TKD-mutation(+) AML.