Background: This article presents the results of two randomized, double-blind, controlled studies conducted to compare the efficacy and long-term safety of icodextrin and 2.5% dextrose for the once-daily long dwell in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD).
Methods: Both studies were active-control comparisons of 7.5% icodextrin and 2.5% dextrose for the once-daily long dwell. The efficacy study was a 4-week evaluation of net ultrafiltration and peritoneal clearances of creatinine and urea nitrogen in 175 CAPD patients. The 52-week study in CAPD and APD patients examined the long-term safety of icodextrin and longer term effects, such as body weight and quality of life.
Results: Mean net ultrafiltration (587.2 versus 346.2 mL, P < 0.001) and clearances of urea nitrogen (4.5 versus 4.1 mL/min, P < 0.001) and creatinine (4.0 versus 3.5 mL/min, P < 0.001) were increased significantly with icodextrin. Patients receiving icodextrin had no increase in weight after 52 weeks, in contrast to a weight gain of almost 2 kg in the dextrose group (P < 0.05). There were significantly fewer patients reporting edema in the icodextrin group compared with the dextrose group (6.3% versus 17.9%, P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for the incidence and severity of adverse events. There were small decreases in sodium and chloride and increases in alkaline phosphatase with icodextrin.
Conclusion: Icodextrin provides patients with greater fluid removal and small solute clearance, no weight gain over 52 weeks, and a decreased risk of edema.
Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.