Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that weight reduction with orlistat plus mild caloric restriction leads to better blood pressure control than diet alone in obese individuals with inadequately controlled hypertension. DESIGN This was a 1-year, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial of orlistat plus diet versus placebo plus diet in obese hypertensives.
Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive either orlistat or placebo; all received a 600 kcal deficient diet with no more than 30% of calories from fat. Weight and blood pressure, lipid levels and fasting glucose and insulin levels were followed.
Main outcome measures: Patients on orlistat experienced greater weight loss (-5.4 +/- 6.4 versus -2.7 +/- 6.4 kg, P< 0.001) and greater reduction in body mass index (-1.9 +/- 2.3 versus -0.9 +/- 2.2 kg/m2, P<0.001). Target weight loss, defined as > or= 5% body weight (BW), was obtained in more orlistat-treated patients than in the placebo group (46 versus 23%, P<0.001). Diastolic BP decreased more in orlistat-treated patients than in the placebo group (-11.4 +/- 8.3 versus -9.2 +/- 8.4 mmHg, P = 0.002). A greater percentage of orlistat-treated patients reached goal diastolic blood pressure (BP), defined as final diastolic BP< 90 mmHg or a reduction of at least 10 mmHg (67 versus 53%, P< 0.001). The orlistat-treated group had significantly greater reductions in total cholesterol ( P<0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.001) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P< 0.005) and target 30% cardiovascular risk reduction was obtained in more orlistat-treated patients (36.1 versus 24.0%, P< 0.04).
Conclusion: A weight-loss program with orlistat is more effective than diet alone to lower blood pressure and results in greater cardiovascular risk reduction.