The Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium smvA, yddG and ompD (porin) genes are required for the efficient efflux of methyl viologen

Mol Microbiol. 2002 Nov;46(3):687-98. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.03204.x.


In Gram-negative bacteria, a subset of inner membrane proteins in the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) acts as efflux pumps to decrease the intracellular concentrations of multiple toxic substrates and confers multidrug resistance. The Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium smvA gene encodes a product predicted to be an MFS protein most similar to QacA of Staphylococcus aureus. Like mutations in qacA, mutations in smvA confer increased sensitivity to methyl viologen (MV). Mutations in the adjacent ompD (porin) and yddG (drug/metabolite transporter) genes also confer increased sensitivity to MV, and mutations in smvA are epistatic to mutations in ompD or yddG for this phenotype. YddG and OmpD probably comprise a second efflux pump in which the OmpD porin acts as an outer membrane channel (OMC) protein for the efflux of MV and functions independently of the SmvA pump. In support of this idea, the pump dependent on YddG and OmpD has a different substrate specificity from the pump dependent on SmvA. Mutations in tolC, which encodes an OMC protein, confer increased resistance to MV. TolC apparently facilitates the import of MV, and a subset of OMC proteins including the OmpD porin and TolC may facilitate both import and export of distinct subsets of toxic substrates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial*
  • Herbicides / metabolism
  • Herbicides / pharmacology*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Paraquat / metabolism
  • Paraquat / pharmacology*
  • Porins / chemistry
  • Porins / genetics*
  • Porins / metabolism
  • Salmonella typhimurium / drug effects*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / genetics
  • Salmonella typhimurium / metabolism
  • Substrate Specificity


  • Herbicides
  • OmpD protein, Salmonella typhimurium
  • Porins
  • SmvA protein, Salmonella typhimurium
  • YddG protein, Salmonella typhimurium
  • Paraquat