DNA replication in higher eukaryotes requires activation of a Cdk2 kinase by Cdc25A, a labile phosphatase subject to further destabilization upon genotoxic stress. We describe a distinct, markedly stable form of Cdc25A, which plays a previously unrecognized role in mitosis. Mitotic stabilization of Cdc25A reflects its phosphorylation on Ser17 and Ser115 by cyclin B-Cdk1, modifications required to uncouple Cdc25A from its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated turnover. Cdc25A binds and activates cyclin B-Cdk1, accelerates cell division when overexpressed, and its downregulation by RNA interference (RNAi) delays mitotic entry. DNA damage-induced G(2) arrest, in contrast, is accompanied by proteasome-dependent destruction of Cdc25A, and ectopic Cdc25A abrogates the G(2) checkpoint. Thus, phosphorylation-mediated switches among three differentially stable forms ensure distinct thresholds, and thereby distinct roles for Cdc25A in multiple cell cycle transitions and checkpoints.