Though simple and attractive, the role of hydration for the prophylaxis of contrast nephrotoxicity has not been definitively established. We prospectively evaluated the role of deliberate saline hydration in patients undergoing nonemergency cardiac catheterization. Patients (n = 53) were randomized on the day prior to scheduled catheterization to one of two groups - group 1 (n = 27) received normal saline for 24 h (at a rate of 1 ml/kg/h) beginning 12 h prior to scheduled catheterization, and group 2 (n = 26) were allowed unrestricted oral fluids. Serum creatinine measured 24 and 48 h postcardiac catheterization was compared to the pre-randomization baseline value. The mean baseline calculated creatinine clearance was 79.6 +/- 31.9 ml/min and the mean baseline creatinine was 106 +/- 28 micromol/l. An increase in serum creatinine by at least 44.2 micromol/l (0.5 mg/dl), within 48 h of contrast exposure, was considered to represent clinically significant acute renal insufficiency. Ten subjects (18.9%) developed acute renal insufficiency. The incidence of acute renal insufficiency was significantly lower in group 1 (1 out of 27) as compared to group 2 (9 out of 26; p = 0.005 for comparison between groups; relative risk 0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.015 to 0.79). Twenty-four hours after contrast exposure, the mean increase in creatinine was less in group 1 vs. group 2 (8 +/- 11 vs. 20 +/- 21 micromol/l, p = 0.02). The increase in creatinine was not significantly different in group 1 vs. group 2 48 h after contrast exposure (12 +/- 21 vs. 29 +/- 40 micromol/l, p = 0.17). Deliberate saline hydration decreases the incidence of contrast-related acute renal failure and the severity of contrast-induced renal dysfunction in patients undergoing non-emergency cardiac catheterization.
Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel