2002 Refshauge Lecture. When to retire after concussion?

J Sci Med Sport. 2002 Sep;5(3):169-82. doi: 10.1016/s1440-2440(02)80002-0.


The management of an athlete with recurrent concussions, whether persistently symptomatic or not, remains anecdotal. There are no evidence-based guidelines upon which a team physician can advise the athlete. All doctors involved in athlete care need to be aware of the potential for medicolegal problems if athletes are inappropriately returned to sport prematurely or in the case of professional athletes held out of sport or retired on the basis of non-scientific recommendations.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Athletic Injuries* / complications
  • Athletic Injuries* / physiopathology
  • Brain Concussion* / physiopathology
  • Cognition Disorders / etiology
  • Humans
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Recurrence
  • Retirement
  • Unconsciousness