Conrad Hal Waddington: the last Renaissance biologist?

Nat Rev Genet. 2002 Nov;3(11):889-95. doi: 10.1038/nrg933.


Conrad Hal Waddington was a leading embryologist and geneticist from the 1930s to the 1950s. He is remembered mainly for his concepts of the 'epigenetic landscape' and 'genetic assimilation'. This article reviews his life and work, and enquires to what extent his ideas are relevant tools for understanding the biological problems of today.

Publication types

  • Biography
  • Historical Article
  • Portrait

MeSH terms

  • Biological Evolution
  • Embryology / history*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Genetics / history*
  • History, 20th Century
  • Organizers, Embryonic
  • United Kingdom

Personal name as subject

  • Conrad Hal Waddington