Background: Osteoinduction to treat osseous defects has been attempted by several means. Some clinical studies have demonstrated that a synthetic cell binding peptide (P-15) with anorganic bovine derived bone matrix (ABM) has the ability to enhance bone regeneration. These studies suggest that more histological data are necessary to better understand this process. We have developed a Class III chronic alveolar defect animal model to investigate space-maintaining regenerative materials. The objective of this study was to clinically and histologically evaluate the use of P-15/ABM with or without a bioabsorbable membrane (M) to regenerate localized chronic alveolar ridge defects in dogs.
Methods: Six adult, male mongrel dogs were used in this study. Bilateral, Class III, alveolar defects were surgically produced following extraction of the mandibular second premolar teeth and local reduction of the alveolar ridge. After an 8-week healing interval, mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated. P-15/ABM with or without bioabsorbable membranes were implanted into contralateral defects in 10 sites. Two sites received no biomaterial (controls). Mucoperiosteal flaps were advanced over the P-15/ABM or P-15/ABM/M constructs and sutured. Pre- and postaugmentation clinical evaluation was done utilizing periodontal probes and calipers. The animals were sacrificed 12 weeks postaugmentation and block specimens processed for histologic evaluation.
Results: Clinical results showed no significant statistical augmentation on the control group (0.0 +/- 0.6 mm). In all experimental sites utilizing P-15/ABM or P-15/ABM/M, relevant ridge augmentation was observed (3.6 +/- 2.0 mm and 2.9 +/- 1.9 mm, respectively). Histologically, all experimental sites showed active bone formation with plump osteoblast and osteoid matrix deposition in the treated area. Bone ingrowth filled the area of the defects treated with P-15/ABM/M. Few P-15/ABM particles were seen in the cellular fibrous tissue surrounding the new formed bone trabeculae.
Conclusions: P-15/ABM with or without membranes can produce a significant clinical ridge augmentation. Bone formation was histologically observed in all test areas. The association of a membrane with P-15/ABM seemed to enhance the process of bone formation.