Influence of starter and nonstarter on the formation of biogenic amine in goat cheese during ripening

J Dairy Sci. 2002 Oct;85(10):2471-8. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74329-4.


Two commercial starters were investigated for their potential ability to decarboxylate amino acids during goat cheese ripening. Two batches of goat cheese were produced with identical pasteurized milk but different starter cultures. One of them contained Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and the other Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The amine contents, microbial counts, proteolysis-related parameters, pH, total solids and salt content were studied in raw materials and cheeses. In raw materials, polyamines were the prevailing amines, whereas the main amines in cheeses were putrescine, tryptamine and, in particular, tyramine (94.59 mg/kg). Aerobic mesophilic microorganisms and Lactococcus counts increased throughout ripening, while Enterobacteriaceae were no longer detectable in cheese after 30 days of ripening. Amine concentration rose during cheese ripening in both batches. Moreover, the decarboxylase activity of microorganisms isolated from samples during cheese ripening was assayed and discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biogenic Amines / analysis
  • Biogenic Amines / metabolism*
  • Cheese / analysis
  • Cheese / microbiology*
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Enterobacteriaceae / metabolism
  • Fermentation*
  • Goats*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Lactococcus lactis / metabolism*
  • Milk / chemistry
  • Milk / microbiology


  • Biogenic Amines