Activin, a grape seed-derived proanthocyanidin extract, reduces plasma levels of oxidative stress and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin) in systemic sclerosis

Free Radic Res. 2002 Aug;36(8):819-25. doi: 10.1080/1071576021000005249.


This study evaluated whether a new generation antioxidant Activin derived from the grape seed proanthocyanidins, could reduce the induction of the adhesion molecules as a result of inflammatory response in the plasma of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. SSc patients were divided into two groups: one group was treated with Activin, a grape seed-derived proanthocyanidins, while the other group served as control. Patients were given Activin 100 mg/day orally for one month after which the blood samples were withdrawn from both groups of the patients. Blood was also taken from normal human volunteers. Plasma was obtained in fasting state between 8 to 9 A.M. from two groups of SSc patients and controls. Soluble adhesion molecules including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin as well as malonaldehyde, a marker for oxidative stress, were measured. The results of our study demonstrated up-regulation of these soluble adhesion molecules except for P-selectin, in the plasma of the SSc patients compared to those obtained from human volunteers. Activin significantly attenuated the increased expression of these adhesion molecules. In addition, there was a significant increase in the amount of malondialdehyde formation in the plasma of the SSc patients, which was also attenuated by Activin. The results of this study demonstrated that Activin could reduce the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress developed in SSc patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Activins / pharmacology*
  • Anthocyanins / pharmacology
  • Cell Adhesion
  • E-Selectin / blood
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood
  • Malondialdehyde / blood
  • Models, Chemical
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Pilot Projects
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Proanthocyanidins*
  • Scleroderma, Systemic / drug therapy*
  • Seeds / metabolism
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood
  • Vitis / metabolism*


  • Anthocyanins
  • E-Selectin
  • Plant Extracts
  • Proanthocyanidins
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Activins
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
  • proanthocyanidin
  • Malondialdehyde