Objectives: To evaluate the factors influencing the cancer detection rate in men whose initial and repeat biopsies were both performed using an extended multisite biopsy scheme. Sextant biopsy of the prostate is associated with a significant false-negative rate, as evident from the high cancer detection rate after repeat prostate biopsy. Extended multisite biopsy schemes have therefore been recommended to maximize cancer detection.
Methods: Between June 1997 and August 2001, 939 men underwent prostate biopsy for early detection of prostate cancer using the extended multisite scheme (10 or 11 cores incorporating the anterior horn of the peripheral zone with or without midline peripheral zone and/or the transition zone). Of these 939 men, 89 (9.5%) underwent a repeat extended multisite prostate biopsy. The median prostate-specific antigen level was 6.9 ng/mL (range 0.7-36.1). Twenty-four men (27%) had an abnormal digital rectal examination at presentation. Most men (86%) in the group undergoing repeat biopsy had two or more risk factors for a positive biopsy. The median interval between biopsies was 4 months.
Results: Of the 89 men, 15 (17%) had prostate cancer in the repeat biopsy specimen. Seven cancers (47%) were found only in the alternate biopsy sites, 5 (33%) cancers were found only in the sextant sites, and 3 in both sextant and alternate sites. Cancer was present in only one biopsy core in 11 (73%) of the 15 men, and the median Gleason score was 6 (range 6-8). On multivariate analysis, the presence of atypical glands suspicious for carcinoma (AGSC) was the only independent predictor of cancer in repeat biopsy (P <0.004). Of the 79 men without AGSC in the initial biopsy, 8 (10%) had a positive repeat biopsy. The total and percent free prostate-specific antigen level, digital rectal examination, ultrasound findings, and presence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia were not predictive of cancer detection.
Conclusions: The probability of a positive result for a repeat prostate biopsy is lower after an initial extended multisite biopsy compared with an initial sextant biopsy. The presence of AGSC was the only significant predictor of cancer in the repeat biopsy. Because nearly 50% of cancers detected in the repeat biopsy were in alternate sites only, using a sextant biopsy scheme for repeat biopsy would have missed these cancers.