Objectives: To compare, in a prospective study, the efficacy of a single injection of polydimethylsiloxane (Macroplastique) or dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux), a new biodegradable substance, and to assess the short-term and 1-year clinical effects concerning reflux resolution and the safety of these two bulking agents. Subureteral injection of bulking agents has recently demonstrated good success rates for endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux. Macroplastique has been one of the most popular bulking agents during the past years. Nevertheless, considering the synthetic property, new biodegradable substances have become more relevant.
Methods: From January 2000 to June 2001, 16 boys and 56 girls (total of 114 ureters) with a mean age of 34.5 months were treated endoscopically for vesicoureteral reflux. A single subureteral Macroplastique or Deflux injection was performed in 34 children (58 ureters) and 38 children (56 ureters), respectively. Both groups were comparable in terms of baseline parameters. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade II in 52, grade III in 57, and grade IV in 5 ureterorenal units. The procedure was performed on an outpatient basis, with the children under general anesthesia. In addition to the routine parameters, the follow-up evaluation consisted of renal ultrasonography and voiding cystourethrography at 3 and 12 months postoperatively.
Results: Endoscopic treatment was performed without any complications in all cases. At the 3-month follow-up visit, reflux was corrected in 50 (86.2%) of 58 refluxing ureters in the Macroplastique group and in 40 (71.4%) of 56 refluxing ureters in the Deflux group. At 1 year of follow-up, reflux correction was maintained in 80.9% of ureters in the Macroplastique group and in 67.6% of ureters in the Deflux group. No postoperative complications were observed in either group.
Conclusions: A single subureteral injection of either polydimethylsiloxane (Macroplastique) or dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) is an effective treatment modality for children with vesicoureteral reflux. The procedure was well tolerated, safe, and associated with low morbidity. Deflux, a new biocompatible, biodegradable substance, seems to be an alternative modality to other bulking agents for treating vesicoureteral reflux in children, with acceptable short-term and 1-year results.