By using subtraction and cDNA array hybridizations, we recently identified an anonymous transcript that was differentially expressed in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Here, we report the cloning of the full-length cDNA of the gene, designated STEAP2 (six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 2). The gene is located at the chromosomal region 7q21 and encodes for a 490-amino acid protein with six predicted transmembrane domains and is predominantly expressed in prostate epithelial cells. Green fluorescent protein fusion construct indicated that the STEAP2 protein is localized mainly in the plasma membrane. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the gene is expressed at levels more than 10 times higher in normal prostate than in other tissues studied. Of the prostate cancer cell lines, STEAP2 was expressed in significant levels only in androgen-responsive LNCaP. The expression of STEAP2 was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in both untreated primary and hormone-refractory prostate carcinomas than in benign prostate hyperplasias, suggesting that it may be involved in the development of prostate cancer. As a cell-surface antigen, STEAP2 is a potential diagnostic or therapeutic target in prostate cancer.