The present retrospective study investigated the frequency of prostate carcinoma (PCA) among prostate abnormalities in dogs and determined whether castration influences the incidence of PCA in dogs. During the years 1993-1998, 15,363 male dogs were admitted to the Utrecht University Clinic of Companion Animals, and of these dogs 225 were diagnosed with prostatic disease. In addition, another 206 male dogs were diagnosed as having prostatic disease based on cytologic examination of aspiration biopsies submitted by referring veterinarians. Benign prostatic hyperplasia was diagnosed in 246 dogs (57.1%), prostatitis in 83 dogs (19.3%), and PCA in 56 dogs (13%). Dogs with PCA were significantly older (mean age=9.9 years) than dogs with other prostatic diseases (mean age=8.4 years). The Bouvier des Flandres breed had an increased risk (odds ratio (OR)=8.44; 95% CI 4.38-16.1) of having PCA. Castration (26/56) increased the risk (OR=4.34; 95% CI 2.48-7.62) of PCA. The mean age at diagnosis of PCA in castrated dogs and in intact male dogs was not significantly different. The interval between castration and onset of prostatic problems was highly variable, suggesting that castration does not initiate the development of PCA in the dog, but it does favour tumor progression.