Many aspects of hormone receptor function that are crucial for controlling signal transduction of endocrine pathways can be monitored more accurately with the use of non-invasive, live cell resonance energy transfer (RET) techniques. Fluorescent RET (FRET), and its variation, bioluminescent RET (BRET), can be used to assess the real-time responses to specific hormonal stimuli, whilst preserving the cellular protein network, compartmentalization and spatial arrangement. Both FRET and BRET can be readily adapted to the study of membrane proteins. Here, we focus on their applications to the analysis of interactions involving the superfamily of hormone G-protein-coupled receptors. RET is also emerging as a significant tool for the determination of protein function in general. Such techniques will undoubtedly be of value in determining the functional identities of the vast array of proteins that are encoded by the human genome.