Estrogen action and cytoplasmic signaling pathways. Part II: the role of growth factors and phosphorylation in estrogen signaling

Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec;13(10):422-7. doi: 10.1016/s1043-2760(02)00634-3.


In recent years, distinct signaling pathways involving specific complexes of cytoplasmic proteins have been shown to orchestrate estrogen action. These pathways might supplement or augment genomic effects of estrogen that are attributable to transcriptional activation by liganded receptor. Signals might be transduced through phosphorylation of the estrogen receptors (ERs), or indirectly through effects upon transcriptional coactivators or cell receptors. Estrogen signaling is coupled to growth factor signaling with feedback mechanisms directly impacting function of growth factor receptors. These signaling pathways regulate important physiological processes, such as cell growth and apoptosis. Here, we focus on cytoplasmic signaling pathways leading to activation of ERs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Cytoplasm / enzymology
  • Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism
  • Estrogens / metabolism*
  • Feedback / physiology
  • Female
  • Growth Substances / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation*
  • Protein Kinase C / metabolism
  • Receptor Cross-Talk
  • Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Transcriptional Activation / physiology
  • src Homology Domains


  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • Estrogens
  • Growth Substances
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Epidermal Growth Factor
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases