Spontaneous aortocaval fistula

J Postgrad Med. 2002 Jul-Sep;48(3):203-5.

Abstract

Spontaneous aortocaval fistula is rare, occurring only in 4% of all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. The physical signs can be missed but the presence of low back pain, palpable abdominal aortic aneurysm, machinery abdominal murmur and high-output cardiac failure unresponsive to medical treatment should raise the suspicion. Pre-operative diagnosis is crucial, as adequate preparation has to be made for the massive bleeding expected at operation. Successful treatment depends on management of perioperative haemodynamics, control of bleeding from the fistula and prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Surgical repair of an aortocaval fistula is now standardised--repair of the fistula from within the aneurysm (endoaneurysmorraphy) followed by prosthetic graft replacement of the aneurysm. A case report of a 77-year-old woman, initially suspected to have unstable angina but subsequently diagnosed to have an aortocaval fistula and surgically treated successfully, is presented along with a review of literature.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal / complications
  • Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal / diagnosis*
  • Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal / surgery
  • Aortic Rupture / complications
  • Aortic Rupture / diagnosis*
  • Aortic Rupture / surgery
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / diagnostic imaging
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / etiology*
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / surgery
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Risk Assessment
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures / methods