A randomized trial of skin cancer prevention in aquatics settings: the Pool Cool program

Health Psychol. 2002 Nov;21(6):579-87.


Skin cancer is increasing, and prevention programs are essential. This study evaluated the impact of a skin cancer prevention program on sun-protection habits and swimming pool environments. The intervention included staff training; sun-safety lessons; interactive activities; providing sunscreen, shade, and signage; and promoting sun-safe environments. A randomized trial at 28 swimming pools in Hawaii and Massachusetts tested the efficacy of this program (Pool Cool) compared with an attention-matched injury-prevention control program. Results showed significant positive changes in children's use of sunscreen and shade, overall sun-protection habits, and number of sunburns and improvements in parents' hat use, sun-protection habits, and reported sun-protection policies and environments. Observations corroborated the positive findings. Pool Cool had significant positive effects at swimming pools in diverse audiences.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child Welfare
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Hawaii
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Health Promotion*
  • Humans
  • Likelihood Functions
  • Male
  • Massachusetts
  • Melanoma / prevention & control*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Protective Clothing
  • Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Sunscreening Agents
  • Swimming*


  • Sunscreening Agents