3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type I is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by various symptoms ranging from delayed speech development to severe neurological handicap. This disorder is caused by a deficiency of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase, one of the key enzymes of leucine degradation. This results in elevated urinary levels of 3-methylglutaconic acid, 3-methylglutaric acid, and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid. By heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, we show that 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase is encoded by the AUH gene, whose product had been reported elsewhere as an AU-specific RNA-binding protein. Mutation analysis of AUH in two patients revealed a nonsense mutation (R197X) and a splice-site mutation (IVS8-1G-->A), demonstrating that mutations in AUH cause 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type I.