Ezetimibe is a cholesterol absorption inhibitor that significantly lowers low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and favourably affects triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol blood levels in monotherapy and in combination with statins. Hepatic and extrahepatic (peripheral) cholesterol synthesis are well-known sources of cholesterol found in LDL-C. However, the emergence of ezetimibe has highlighted intestinal cholesterol absorption as an additional, important source of cholesterol in LDL-C, and has better illuminated how genetic factors, dietary content, pharmaceutical agents, and nuclear receptor activation (such as liver X receptors) all influence the relative contribution of these important cholesterol sources to LDL-C. In fact, investigations into ezetimibe have sometimes challenged existing scientific dogma, has prompted reconsideration of older data, and has helped create 'new' paradigms in cholesterol metabolism. Thus, ezetimibe's efficacy, excellent tolerability, and safety has not only expanded potential treatment options for dyslipidaemic patients, but also has promoted exploration of new frontiers of lipid research towards a better understanding of cholesterol metabolism.