Aims/purpose: To identify the characteristic ocular findings in Asian children with Down syndrome.
Methods: A total of 123 Korean children with Down's syndrome between 6 months and 14 years of age were examined for ocular findings from March 1999 to April 2000. Ocular examinations including visual acuity assessment, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, ocular motility, cycloplegic refraction, and ophthalmoscopy were performed.
Results: The ocular findings in decreasing prevalence were the following: upward slanting of the palpebral fissure (78 patients, 63%), epicanthus (75 patients, 61%), epiblepharon (66 patients, 54%), astigmatism (38 patients, 31%), hyperopia (35 patients, 28%), myopia (31 patients, 25%), strabismus (31 patients, 25%, 18 esotropia and 13 exotropia), nystagmus (27 patients, 22%), nasolacrimal duct obstruction (21 patients, 17%), blepharoconjunctivitis (20 patients, 16%), retinal abnormalities (18 patients, 15%), cataract (four patients, 13%), and glaucoma (one patient, 0.8%). Brushfield spots and keratoconus were not found.
Conclusions: Asian children with Down syndrome demonstrate unreported, high incidence of epiblepharon, the high rate of exotropia, and essentially no notable Brushfield spots, which are in contrast to the ocular findings in Caucasian patients with Down syndrome.