Meat consumption and meat preparation methods are thought to be associated with the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer, and possibly adenomas. As the same somatic mutations occur in sporadic adenomas and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)-related adenomas, similar exogenous factors may play a role in the development of both types of adenoma. In a case control study among 57 sporadic colorectal adenoma cases and 62 adenoma cases from HNPCC families (and 148 adenoma-free controls) from the Netherlands, we examined whether meat consumption and preparation are similarly associated with sporadic and suspected HNPCC colorectal adenomas. Frequency of meat consumption was not significantly associated with adenoma risk in our population of sporadic and HNPCC family cases and controls (Odds Ratios (OR) for high versus low consumption were 1.0 and 0.6, respectively). Interestingly, consumption of red meat and specific preparation methods (i.e., "not adding any water" and " closed lid with most meat types") slightly, but non-significantly, increased the risk of adenomas in the sporadic group only (OR, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 4.1, 0.7-23.0, 2.0, 0.6-6.5 and 2.6, 0.9-7.2, respectively). This is the first study to examine possible differences or similarities in risk factors for sporadic and HNPCC colorectal carcinogenesis. Our results do not provide support for meat consumption as a risk factor for adenoma formation in HNPCC family members. Some characteristics of habitual meat preparation in the Netherlands may, however, increase the risk of sporadic adenomas.