Current hepatitis B vaccination programmes targeting risk groups have met with little success in controlling HBV infection in the general population. Despite the long-standing existence of unambiguous recommendations for risk-group vaccination, hepatitis B vaccination coverage remains low in most risk groups in most high-income countries. This low coverage may be attributed to a lack of perceived risk of hepatitis B and the absence of appropriate health care programmes targeting hepatitis B monitoring and vaccination for certain risk groups, particularly sex workers, injecting drug users, and prisoners. The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board (VHPB) recognises the importance of raising the awareness of health care providers, policymakers, and the general public, about hepatitis B as a risk to both the community in general and to specific groups considered at increased risk. The VHPB also recognises that new strategies will have to be developed and implemented.