Serum responses to oral cholera vaccines were assessed in three paediatric vaccine trials, two in León, Nicaragua and one in Stockholm, Sweden. A calibrated anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) IgA ELISA was used together with an assay for vibriocidal antibodies. Swedish children had lower pre-vaccination levels of antibody, but serum responses were more pronounced in Swedish children than in Nicaraguan children. Post-vaccination levels of anti-toxin antibody were generally above those found after natural infections with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, that cross-reacts serologically with Vibrio cholerae. Adverse events seen after vaccination were generally mild and of little clinical significance.