Lactobacilli as live vaccine delivery vectors: progress and prospects

Trends Biotechnol. 2002 Dec;20(12):508-15. doi: 10.1016/s0167-7799(02)02075-9.


Evidence is accumulating that lactobacilli influence the immune response in a strain-dependent manner. This immunomodulatory capacity is important for the development of the immune response, and also identifies Lactobacillus as a potent oral vaccine carrier. Most of our current knowledge of the use of lactobacilli for vaccination purposes has been obtained with tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) as the model antigen. This knowledge, together with our ever-increasing understanding of the immune system and recent developments in cloning and expression techniques, should enable the utilisation of antigens other than TTFC and has made the development of lactobacilli as live vaccines a realistic prospect.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Vaccines / immunology*
  • Bacterial Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Drug Delivery Systems / methods*
  • Drug Delivery Systems / trends
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / immunology
  • Humans
  • Lactobacillus / classification
  • Lactobacillus / immunology*
  • Lactobacillus / metabolism*
  • Peptide Fragments / immunology*
  • Peptide Fragments / metabolism*
  • Probiotics / therapeutic use
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Species Specificity
  • Tetanus Toxin / immunology*
  • Tetanus Toxin / metabolism*
  • Vaccination / methods
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology


  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Tetanus Toxin
  • Vaccines, Synthetic
  • tetanus toxin fragment C