The rostral migratory stream (RMS) is a unique forebrain structure that provides a long-distance migratory route for the neural stem cells of the periventricular region towards the olfactory bulb (OB). The purpose of the study presented here is to examine the extent of neurogenesis and gliogenesis by the neural stem cells of different origins (periventricular vs. intrabulbar) in the OB. After the RMS had been subjected to injury, the rats received intraperitoneal injections of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and were further reared for 2 weeks. Neuronal and glial differentiations of the BrdU(+) cells in the olfactory bulbar granule cell (OB-GCL) and the olfactory glomerular (OB-GL) layers were examined immunohistochemically using antibodies against neuronal (NeuN, neuronal nuclei) and glial (GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein) markers in the OBs with injured and uninjured (control) RMS. In the completely RMS-lesioned OB, where migration of the periventricular neural stem cells was inhibited, a small number of BrdU(+) NeuN(+) cells were found in both the OB-GCL and OB-GL. The BrdU(+) NeuN(+) cells accounted for a much higher percentage of the BrdU(+) cells on the control side (OB-GCL, 36.7%; OB-GL, 8.8%) than on the completely RMS-lesioned side (OB-GCL, 3.7%; OB-GL, 0.6%). The percentage of the BrdU(+) GFAP(+) cells relative to the BrdU(+) cells did not show any major difference between the control and completely RMS-lesioned sides. This study revealed differences in neurogenesis and gliogenesis between the local and migrating neural stem cells in the OB of the adult rodent.