Objectives: To study the risk factor for nosocomial bacteremia caused by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and the influence on patient outcome.
Design: Retrospective, single-center study of consecutive bacteremic patients.
Settings: A university-affiliated teaching hospital.
Patients: A total of 85 patients with nosocomial bacteremia due to E. coli or K. pneumoniae were enrolled.
Measurements and main results: The demographic characteristics and clinical information including treatment were recorded upon review of patients' records. The primary end point was hospital mortality. Twenty-seven percent of isolates produced ESBLs. Previous treatment with 3rd-generation cephalosporins was the only independent risk factor for bacteremia due to ESBL-producing pathogens [odds ratio (OR) 4.146, P=0.008]. Antibiotic treatment was considered appropriate in 71 cases (83%), and failed in 23 patients (27%). Twenty-one patients (25%) died in the hospital. Antibiotic treatment failure was the only independent risk factor for hospital mortality (OR 15.376, P=0.001). Inappropriate antibiotic treatment might lead to significantly higher mortality rate (7/14 vs 14/71, P=0.016). Patients treated with imipenem were more likely to survive while those receiving cephalosporin treatment tended to have a poorer outcome (1/19 vs 14/40, P=0.023).
Conclusions: More judicious use of cephalosporins, especially 3rd-generation cephalosporins, may decrease ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae bacteremia, and also improve patient outcome.