Tissue histogenesis during plant development depends on regulation of cell division plane, timing and frequency to produce cell units of correct size and shape for mature function. Differences among the dermal, ground and vascular tissue systems arise during development, largely through regulation of these aspects of cell cycling in relation to overall tissue expansion. Using a cyclin1At::GUS reporter construct, we demonstrate quantitative differences in cell cycling frequency among tissue systems and among primary, secondary, and tertiary veins; these differences are superimposed upon the more general longitudinal gradient of cell division frequency in developing leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Patterns of cell cycling frequency coincide almost exactly with those of the earliest known molecular marker of procambial identity, the HD-ZIP III homeobox gene ATHB-8, suggesting that ATHB-8 may play a role in regulating the early events of procambial development, including procambium-specific patterns of cell cycling. Cellular localization of cyc1At::GUS and ATHB-8::GUS within developing vascular strands indicates, however, that ATHB-8 has additional functions related to dorsiventral patterning within veins and cell differentiation events.