Association between Helicobacter pylori infection and increased risk of typhoid fever

J Infect Dis. 2002 Dec 15;186(12):1857-60. doi: 10.1086/345762. Epub 2002 Nov 14.


Helicobacter pylori infection has been reported to increase the risk of cholera. This nested case-control study was conducted to determine whether H. pylori infection is associated with occurrence of typhoid fever. Eighty-three case subjects of culture-proven typhoid fever were identified through a 1-year surveillance of subjects aged 0-40 years in an urban slum. Two age- and sex-matched neighborhood control subjects were concurrently selected for each case subject. Serum anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies were measured in case and neighborhood control subjects. For determining other risk factors, 2 additional community control subjects per case were selected. There was a significant association between the presence of serum anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies and typhoid fever (adjusted odds ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.01). Illiteracy, being part of a nuclear family, nonuse of soap, and consumption of ice cream were also associated with a significantly greater risk of typhoid fever. This study provides the first empiric evidence that H. pylori infection is associated with an increased risk of typhoid fever.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Food Handling
  • Helicobacter Infections / blood
  • Helicobacter Infections / complications*
  • Helicobacter Infections / epidemiology
  • Helicobacter pylori* / immunology
  • Humans
  • Hygiene
  • India / epidemiology
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Odds Ratio
  • Poverty
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Typhoid Fever / complications*
  • Typhoid Fever / epidemiology
  • Water Supply


  • Antibodies, Bacterial