Workers in retail and service industries are at high risk for workplace violence. While studies have examined the association between environmental and community factors on robbery risk, few have examined risk factors for fatal and nonfatal employee violent injury. A matched case-site/control-site study was conducted among various retail and service establishments in seven California counties. An interview and environmental assessment was performed in each participating business. Over half of the injury events occurring in case-site were robbery-related, and nearly 13% were fatal. Businesses open 24 hours and those having a history of violent events were found to be at increased risk for employee injury.